Wednesday, March 2, 2011

MODAL ENGLISH AUXILIARIES-2

Modals - English Grammar

1) can

a)ability to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be able to)

I can speak English.

b)permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to)

Can I go to the cinema?

c)request

Can you wait a moment, please?

d)offer

I can lend you my car till tomorrow.

e)suggestion

Can we visit Grandma at the weekend?

f)possibility

It can get very hot in Arizona.

2) could

a)ability to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be able to)

I could speak English.

b)permission to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be allowed to)

I could go to the cinema.

c)polite question *

Could I go to the cinema, please?

d)polite request *

Could you wait a moment, please?

e)polite offer *

I could lend you my car till tomorrow.

f)polite suggestion *

Could we visit Grandma at the weekend?

g)possibility *

It could get very hot in Montana.

3) may

a)possibility

It may rain today.

b)permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to)

May I go to the cinema?

c)polite suggestion

May I help you?

4) might

a)possibility (less possible than may) *

It might rain today.

b)hesitant offer *

Might I help you?

5) must

a)force, necessity

I must go to the supermarket today.

b)possibility

You must be tired.

c)advice, recommendation

You must see the new film with Brad Pitt.

d)obligation

You must work so hard if you want to make your living.

6) must not/may not

a)prohibition

You mustn't work on dad's computer.
You may not work on dad's computer.

7) need not

a)not necessary

I needn't go to the supermarket, we're going to the restaurant tonight.

8) ought to

a)advice

You ought to drive carefully in bad weather.

b)obligation

You ought to switch off the light when you leave the room.

9) shall1. instead of will in the 1st person

a)suggestion

Shall I carry your bag?

10) should

a)advice

You should drive carefully in bad weather.

b)obligation

You should switch off the light when you leave the room.

c)suggestion

You should behave well if you don't want to be mistreated.

11) will

a)wish, request, demand, order (less polite than would)

Will you please shut the door?

b)prediction, assumption

I think it will rain on Friday.

c)promise

I will stop smoking.

d)spontaneous decision

Can somebody drive me to the station? - I will.

e)habits

She's strange, she'll sit for hours without talking.

12) would

a)wish, request (more polite than will)

Would you shut the door, please?

b)habits in the past

Sometimes he would bring me some flowers.

c)condition

I would go with you if you give me the chance.

d)desire

I would I could pass Business English.

e)refusal

My sister wouldn't do her homework.







EXERCISES TO PRACTICE

1. I'm sorry I _____ come yesterday.
a. could not
b. might not

2. I'm sorry but I _____ be able to come today.
a. could not
b. might not

3. I'm sure that _____ have been him.
a. could not
b. might not

4. I'm not sure, but that _____ have been him.
a. could not
b. might not

5. Let's check the news. The airport _____ be open.
a. could not
b. might not

6. I _____ tell him the truth about Holly... but I should have.
a. could not
b. might not

7. Jeanette had made other plans, so she _____ come with us to the museum yesterday.
a. could not
b. might not

8. Jeanette has made other plans, so she _____ come with us to the museum today.
a. could not
b. might not

9. He _____ have possibly won that contest! He was so stupid!
a. could not
b. might not

10. She _____ have told him. That's why he didn't mention anything to me.
a. could not
b. might not







1. She looks pretty sick - I think she ________ go to a doctor.
can
should

2. You've been driving all day - You ________ be exhausted!
must
should

3. You ________ smoke so much. It's bad for your health.
can't
shouldn't

4. Hey I'm lost - ________ you help me?
Should
Can

5. You have such a beautiful voice - You ________ sing for us!
should
can

6. I know he speaks five languages, but ________ he speak Arabic?
should
can

7. That looks very expensive. It ________ have cost a fortune!
must
should

8. I ________ believe that you failed your test!
can't
shouldn't

9. I'm on my way. I ________ be there in about 10 minutes.
can
should

10. I'm sorry - I ________ afford that.
shouldn't
can't

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