Tuesday, April 16, 2013

PERFECT TENSES IN ENGLISH

PERFECT TENSES


Present Perfect Tense

The structure of the present perfect tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb HAVE+ pp of main verb - rest of the sentence






Here are some examples of the present perfect tense:


+ I have seen ET.
+ You have eaten mine.
- She has not been to Rome.
- We have not played football.
? Have you finished?
? Have they done it?

Contractions with the present perfect tense
When we use the present perfect tense in speaking, we usually contract the subject and auxiliary verb. We also sometimes do this when we write.

I have I've
You have You've
He has He's
She has she's
It has  it's
John has John's
The car has The car's

We have We've
They have They've

Here are some examples:

• I've finished my work.
• John's seen ET.
• They've gone home.


Present Perfect Continuous Tense


The structure of the present perfect continuous tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb HAVE + past part. of auxiliary verb BE + pres. part. of main verb - predicate

Here are some examples of the present perfect continuous tense:


+ I have been waiting for one hour.
+ You have been talking too much.
- It has not been raining.
- We have not been playing football.
? Have you been seeing her?
? Have they been doing their homework?

Contractions

When we use the present perfect continuous tense in speaking, we often contract the subject and the first auxiliary. We also sometimes do this in informal writing.

I have been I've been
You have been You've been
He has been  He's been
She has been  She's been
It has been  It's been
John has been  John's been
The car has been  The car's been
We have been We've been
They have been They've been

Here are some examples:

• I've been reading.
• The car's been giving trouble.
• We've been playing tennis for two hours.

"For and Since" with Present Perfect Continuous Tense

We often use for and since with the present perfect tense.
• We use for to talk about a period of time - 5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years.
• We use since to talk about a point in past time - 9 o'clock, 1st January, Monday.
for since
a period of time a point in past time
________________________________________ x ________________________________________

20 minutes 6.15pm
three days Monday
6 months January
4 years 1994
2 centuries 1800
a long time I left school
ever the beginning of time
etc etc

Here are some examples:

• I have been studying for 3 hours.
• I have been watching TV since 7pm.
• Tara hasn't been feeling well for 2 weeks.
• Tara hasn't been visiting us since March.
• He has been playing football for a long time.
• He has been living in Bangkok since he left school.


Past Perfect Tense

The structure of the past perfect tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb HAD + past part. of main verb - predicate


had -ED OR IRREGULAR

For negative sentences in the past perfect tense, we insert not between the auxiliary verb and main verb. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb. Look at these example sentences with the past perfect tense:


+ I had finished my work.
+ You had stopped before me.
- She had not gone to school.
- We had not left.
? Had you arrived?
? Had they eaten dinner?

When speaking with the past perfect tense, we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb:

I had I'd
you had you'd
he had  he'd
she had  she'd
it had   it'd

we had we'd
they had they'd

The 'd contraction is also used for the auxiliary verb would. For example,
we'd can mean: • We had or • We would

But usually the main verb is in a different form, for example:
• We had arrived (past participle)
• We would arrive (base)

It is always clear from the context.


Past Perfect Continuous Tense



The structure of the past perfect continuous tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb HAD + past part. of auxiliary verb BE + pres. part of main verb


For negative sentences in the past perfect continuous tense, we insert not after the first auxiliary verb. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and first auxiliary verb. Look at these example sentences with the past perfect continuous tense:


+ I had been working.
+ You had been playing tennis.
- It had not been working well.
- We had not been expecting her.
? Had you been drinking?
? Had they been waiting long?

When speaking with the past perfect continuous tense, we often contract the subject and first auxiliary verb:

I had been I'd been
you had been you'd been
he had  he'd been
she had been 
she'd been
it had been  it'd been
we had been we'd been
they had been they'd been

How do we use the Past Perfect Continuous Tense?

The past perfect continuous tense is like the past perfect tense, but it expresses longer actions in the past before another action in the past. For example:

• Ram started waiting at 9am. I arrived at 11am. When I arrived, Ram had been waiting for two hours.
Ram had been waiting for two hours when I arrived.






Here are some more examples:


• John was very tired. He had been running.
• I could smell cigarettes. Somebody had been smoking.
• Suddenly, my car broke down. I was not surprised. It had not been running well for a long time.
• Had the pilot been drinking before the crash?


Future Perfect Tense

The structure of the future perfect tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb WILL + auxiliary verb HAVE + past part. of main verb - predicate


will have -ED OR IRREGULAR

Look at these example sentences in the future perfect tense:


+ I will have finished by 10am.
+ You will have forgotten me by then.
- She will not have gone to school.
- We will not have left.
? Will you have arrived?
? Will they have received it?

In speaking with the future perfect tense, we often contract the subject and will. Sometimes, we contract the subject, will and have all together:

I will have I'll have I'll've
you will have you'll have you'll've
he will have  he'll have he'll've
she will have she'll have she'll've
it will have  it'll have  it'll've
we will have we'll have we'll've
they will have they'll have they'll've

We sometimes use "shall" instead of "will", especially for I and we.


The future perfect tense expresses action in the future before another action in the future. This is the past in the future. For example:

• The train will leave the station at 9am. You will arrive at the station at 9.15am. When you arrive, the train will have left.
The train will have left when you arrive.



Look at some more examples:

• You can call me at work at 8 am. I will have arrived at the office by 8.
• They will be tired when they arrive. They will not have slept for a long time.
• "Mary won't be at home when you arrive."
"Really? Where will she have gone?"


Future Perfect Continuous Tense




The structure of the future perfect continuous tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb WILL + auxiliary verb HAVE + past part. of auxiliary verb BE + pres.part of main verb - predicate


For negative sentences in the future perfect continuous tense, we insert not between will and have. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and will. Look at these example sentences with the future perfect continuous tense:


+ I will have been working for four hours.
+ You will have been travelling for two days.
- She will not have been using the car.
- We will not have been waiting long.
? Will you have been playing football?
? Will they have been watching TV?

When we use the future perfect continuous tense in speaking, we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb:

I will I'll
you will you'll
he will  he'll
she will  she'll
it will  it'll
we will we'll
they will they'll

For negative sentences in the future perfect continuous tense, we contract with won't, like this:

I will not I won't
you will not you won't
he will not  he won't
she will not   she won't
it will not  it won't
we will not  we won't
they will not  they won't

How do we use the Future Perfect Continuous Tense?

We use the future perfect continuous tense to talk about a long action before some point in the future. Look at these examples:

• I will have been working here for ten years next week.
• He will be tired when he arrives. He will have been travelling for 24 hours.

Conditional Perfect (Condicional Perfecto)   
    
El "conditional perfect" se construye con la forma condicional del auxiliar "to have", acompañado del participio (past participle) del verbo principal (en la primera persona del singular y del plural se puede utilizar "should" en lugar de "would"):

Structure of the Conditional perfect

subject + modal conditional + auxiliary HAVE + past part. of main verb + predicate
 
I would have visited my brother.    Yo habría visitado a mi hermano
She would have bought a car.    Ella se habría comprado un coche

La forma negativa se construye interponiendo la negación "not" entre la forma auxiliar "would" y la forma infinitiva "have".

Se puede utilizar también la contracción "wouldn't" (y "shouldn't" con la primera persona del singular y plural):

You would not have said that.    Tú no habrías dicho eso
You wouldn't have said that.            ,,         ,,           ,,

La forma interrogativa se forma comenzando la oración por la forma auxiliar "would", seguido del sujeto , de la forma infinitiva "have" y del verbo principal:

Would you have gone to the party?    ¿Habrías ido a la fiesta?
Would she have cooked the dinner?   ¿Habría preparado ella la cena?

La forma interrogativa negativa se forma empezando la oración por "would", seguido del sujeto, de la negación "not", de la forma infinitiva "have" y del verbo principal.

También se podría utilizar la contracción "wouldn't" que iria al comienzo de la oración:
Wouldn't you have gone to the party     No habrías ido a la fiesta
Wouldn't she have cooked the dinner    No habría ella preparado la cena


Conditional Perfect Progressive  
    
El "conditional perfect Progresivo" se construye con la forma condicional del auxiliar "to have", acompañado del participio (past participle) del verbo TO BE y luego el presente participio del verbo principal. 

Structure of the Conditional perfect

subject + modal conditional + auxiliary HAVE + past part. of BE + pres.part. of main verb + predicate
 
I would have been visiting my brother.    Yo habría estado visitando a mi hermano
She would have been buying a car.    Ella se habría estado comprando un coche

La forma negativa se construye interponiendo la negación "not" entre la forma auxiliar "would" y la forma infinitiva "have".

Se puede utilizar también la contracción "wouldn't" (y "shouldn't" con la primera persona del singular y plural):

You would not have been saying that.    Tú no habrías estado diciendo eso.
You wouldn't have said that.                 ,,         ,,           ,,            ,,    

La forma interrogativa se forma comenzando la oración por la forma auxiliar "would", seguido del sujeto , luego la forma simple  de "have" seguido del pasado participio de BE en seguida el participio presente del verbo principal:

Would you have been going to the party?    ¿Habrías estado yendo a la fiesta?
Would she have been cooking the dinner?   ¿Habría estado preparando ella la cena?

La forma interrogativa negativa se forma empezando la oración por "would", seguido del sujeto, de la negación "not", etc. 

También se podría utilizar la contracción "wouldn't" que iria al comienzo de la oración:

Wouldn't you have been going to the party?   ¿No habrías estado yendo a la fiesta?
Wouldn't she have cooked the dinner?   ¿No habría ella preparado la cena?






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